Volume 15, Issue 2 (Summer & Autumn 2018)                   ASJ 2018, 15(2): 41-46 | Back to browse issues page

XML Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Mosavian Naeini R, Sahebalzamani M, Nazem M N. Histomorphometrical Changes on the Knee Joints of Male and Female Rats After Moderate Exercise Program. ASJ 2018; 15 (2) :41-46
URL: http://anatomyjournal.ir/article-1-184-en.html
1- Department of Sport Medicine, Faculty of Physical Education, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran.
2- Department of Basic Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran.
Abstract:   (4163 Views)
Introduction: Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most common joint diseases that is accompanied with cartilage loss and finally leads to joint destruction. The most common joint that is affected in OA is the knee joint. Knee joint OA may lead to significant illness. 
Methods: The effect of excessive running load on the development of knee OA was investigated in rats. This study aimed to evaluate the same moderate running program on the knee cartilage thickness and its lesions in Wistar rats (both sexes with the same age and body weight). Thirty two male and female Wistar rats with no significant difference in their body weight were randomly divided into four equal groups with the same conditions. Eight of each sex was selected as control groups while running exercises were performed in remained 16 male and female rats for 6 weeks on a motor-driven treadmill for 60 minutes each day, 5 days per week. On day 43, all animals were killed and their knee joints were prepared for histomorphometrical study. The histopathological measures, including cartilage lesion thickness, cartilage thickness, maximum degeneration width, minimum degeneration width, degeneration height, cartilage lesion thickness to cartilage thickness ratio and also area of the degenerative parts were evaluated. 
Results: The severity of OA lesions was graded on a scale adopted from OARSI (Osteoarthritis Research Society International) histopathology instructions. Cartilage lesion thickness and degenerative area of the lesions in the female exercise group were significantly more than those in the male exercise group. Other assessment parameters in the female running exercise group differed from those in male exercise group, too (P>0.05). 
Conclusion: Histopathological findings revealed mild and moderate OA in the male and female running rats, respectively.
Full-Text [PDF 522 kb]   (1005 Downloads) |   |   Full-Text (HTML)  (1352 Views)  
Type of Study: Original | Subject: Gross Anatomy
Received: 2017/11/10 | Accepted: 2018/04/25 | Published: 2018/07/1

1. Jones G, Ding C, Scott F, Glisson M, Cicuttini F. Early radiographic osteoarthritis is associated with substantial changes in cartilage volume and tibial bone surface area in both males and females. Osteoarthritis and Cartilage. 2004; 12(2):169–74. [DOI:10.1016/j.joca.2003.08.010] [DOI:10.1016/j.joca.2003.08.010]
2. Zhang W, Moskowitz RW. OARSI recommendations for the management of hip and knee osteoarthritis, Part II: OARSI evidence-based, expert consensus guidelines. Osteoarthritis and Cartilage. 2008; 16(2):137-62. [DOI:10.1016/j.joca.2007.12.013] [DOI:10.1016/j.joca.2007.12.013]
3. Bronner F, Farach Carson M. Bone and osteoarthritis. Berlin: Springer; 2007. [DOI:10.1007/978-1-84628-701-5] [DOI:10.1007/978-1-84628-701-5]
4. Klug M, Shrier I, McBain K, Shultz R, Meeuwisse WH, Garza D, Matheson GO. The prevention of sport injury: An anlaysis of 12000 published manuscripts. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine. 2010; 20(6):407–12. [DOI:10.1097/JSM.0b013e3181f4a99c] [DOI:10.1097/JSM.0b013e3181f4a99c]
5. Mikkelsson O, Nupponen H, Kaprio J, Kautiainen H, Mikkelsson M, Kujala M. Adolescent flexibility, endurance strength, and physical activity as predictors of adult tension neck, low back pain, and knee injury: A 25 year follow up study. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 2006; 40(2):107-13. [DOI:10.1136/bjsm.2004.017350] [DOI:10.1136/bjsm.2004.017350]
6. Giza E, Mithöfer K, Farrell L, Zarins B, Gill T. Injuries in women's professional soccer. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 2005; 39(4):212-6. [DOI:10.1136/bjsm.2004.011973] [DOI:10.1136/bjsm.2004.011973]
7. Fallah Mohammadi M, Hajizadeh Moghaddam A, Mirkarimpur H. The effects of a moderate exercise program on knee osteoarthritis in male Wistar rats. Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Science. 2013; 16(5):683-8. [PMCID] [PMID] [PMID] [PMCID]
8. Blagojevic M, Jinks C, Jeffery A, Jordan KP. Risk factors for onset of osteoarthritis of the knee in older adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Osteoarthritis and Cartilage. 2010; 18(1):24-33. [DOI:10.1016/j.joca.2009.08.010] [DOI:10.1016/j.joca.2009.08.010]
9. Lee YJ, Park JA, Yang SH, Kim KY, Kim BK, Lee EY, et al. Evaluation of osteoarthritis induced by treadmill-running exercise using the modified Mankin and the new OARSI assessment system. Rheumatology International. 2011; 31(12):1571-6. [DOI:10.1007/s00296-010-1520-4] [DOI:10.1007/s00296-010-1520-4]
10. Cifuentes D, Rocha LG, Silva LA, Brito AC, Rueff-Barroso CR, Porto LC, et al. Decrease in oxidative stress and histological changes induced by physical exercise calibrated in rats with osteoarthritis induced by monosodium iodoacetate. Osteoarthritis and Cartilage. 2010; 18(8):1088-95. [DOI:10.1016/j.joca.2010.04.004] [DOI:10.1016/j.joca.2010.04.004]
11. Vignon E, Valat JP, Rossignol M, Avouac B, Rozenberg S, Thoumie P, et al. Osteoarthritis of the review and synthesis (OASIS). Joint Bone Spine. 2006; 73(4):442–55. [DOI:10.1016/j.jbspin.2006.03.001] [DOI:10.1016/j.jbspin.2006.03.001]
12. Sutton AJ, Muir KR, Mockett S, Fentem P. A case-control study to investigate the relation between low and moderate levels of physical activity and osteoarthritis of the knee using data collected as part of the Allied Dunbar National Fitness Survey. Annals Rheumatology Disease. 2001; 60(8):756-64. [DOI:10.1136/ard.60.8.756] [DOI:10.1136/ard.60.8.756]
13. Kazeem A, Olubayo A, Ganiyu A. Plasma Nitric Oxide and Acute Phase Proteins after moderate and prolonged exercises. Iranian Journal of Basic Medicine Science. 2012; 15(1):602-7. [PMCID] [PMID] [PMID] [PMCID]
14. Fehrenbacher A, Steck E, Rickert M, Roth W, Richter W. Rapid regulation of collagen but not metalloproteinase 1, 3, 13, 14 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1, 2, 3 expression in response to mechanical loading of cartilage explants in vitro. Archives Biochemistry Biophysics. 2003; 410(1):39-47. [DOI:10.1016/S0003-9861(02)00658-6] [DOI:10.1016/S0003-9861(02)00658-6]
15. Mio K, Saito S, Tomatsu T, Toyama Y. Intermittent compressive strain may reduce aggrecanase expression in cartilage: A study of chondrocytes in agarose gel. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research. 2005; 433:225-32. [DOI:10.1097/01.blo.0000150466.30696.c6] [DOI:10.1097/01.blo.0000150466.30696.c6]
16. Park S, Hung CT, Ateshian GA. Mechanical response of bovine articular cartilage under dynamic unconfined compression loading at physiological stress levels. Osteoarthritis and Cartilage 2004; 12(1):65-73. [DOI:10.1016/j.joca.2003.08.005] [DOI:10.1016/j.joca.2003.08.005]
17. Roos EM, Dahlberg L. Positive effects of moderate exercise on glycosaminoglycan content in knee cartilage: A four-month, randomized, controlled trial in patients at risk of osteoarthritis. Arthritis Rheumatism. 2005; 52(11):3507–14. [DOI:10.1002/art.21415] [DOI:10.1002/art.21415]
18. Bendele AM. Animal models of osteoarthritis. Journal of Musculoskeletal Neuronal Interactions. 2001; 1(4):363-76. [PMID] [PMID]
19. Khan HM, Ashraf M, Hashmi AS, Ahmad MUD, Anjum AA. Papain induced progressive degenerative changes in articular cartilage of rat femorotibial joint and its histopathological grading. The Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences. 2013; 23(2):350-8.
20. Iwamoto J, Takeda T, Ichimura S: Effect of exercise on tibial and lumbar vertebral bone mass in mature osteopenic rats: Bone histomorphometry study. Journal of Orthopaedics Science. 1998; 3(5):257-63. [DOI:10.1007/s007760050051] [DOI:10.1007/s007760050051]
21. Ramezani M, Alizadeh MH, Kordi MR. Effect of intensity and volume of endurance training on the incidence of knee osteoarthritis in healthy male rats. Razi Journal of Medical Sciences. 2015; 22(131):97-105.
22. Gerwin N, Bendele AM, Glasson S, Carlson CS. The OARSI histopathology initiative – recommendations for histological assessments of osteoarthritis in the rat. Osteoarthritis and Cartilage. 2010; 18(3):S24–S34. [DOI:10.1016/j.joca.2010.05.030] [DOI:10.1016/j.joca.2010.05.030]
23. Hadipur M, Mozaffari R. Protective effects of nutrients on articular cartilage of rats and its histological assessment. Journal of Daneshvar Pezeshki. 2008; 15:88-94.
24. Lequesne MG, Dang N, Lane NE. Sport practice and osteoarthritis of the limbs. Osteoarthritis and Cartilage. 1997; 5(2):75-86. [DOI:10.1016/S1063-4584(97)80001-5] [DOI:10.1016/S1063-4584(97)80001-5]
25. Pap G, Eberhardt R, Sturmer I, Machner A, Schwarzberg H, Roessner A, et al. Development of osteoarthritis in the knee joints of Wistar rats after strenuous running exercise in a running wheel by intracranial self-stimulation. Pathology Research Practice. 1998; 194(1):41-7. [DOI:10.1016/S0344-0338(98)80010-1] [DOI:10.1016/S0344-0338(98)80010-1]
26. Ding C, Cicuttini F, Scott F, Glisson M, Jones G. Sex differences in knee cartilage volume in adults: role of body and bone size, age and physical activity. Rheumatology. 2003; 42(11):1317–23. [DOI:10.1093/rheumatology/keg374] [DOI:10.1093/rheumatology/keg374]
27. Faber SC, Eckstein F, Lukasz S, Muhlbauer R, Hohe J, Englmeier KH, et al. Sex differences in knee joint cartilage thickness, volume and articular surface areas: Assessment with quantitative three-dimensional MR imaging. Skeletal Radiology. 2001; 30(3):144–50. [DOI:10.1007/s002560000320] [DOI:10.1007/s002560000320]
28. Eckstein F, Winzheimer M, Hohe J, Englmeier KH, Reiser M. Interindividual variability and correlation among morphological parameters of knee joint cartilage plates: Analysis with three-dimensional MR imaging. Osteoarthritis and Cartilage. 2001; 9(2):101–11. [DOI:10.1053/joca.2000.0365] [DOI:10.1053/joca.2000.0365]
29. Jones G, Glisson M, Hynes K, Cicuttini F. Sex and site differences in cartilage development: A possible explanation for variations in knee osteoarthritis in later life. Arthritis Rheumatology. 2000; 43(11):2543–8. [DOI:10.1002/1529-0131(200011)43:113.0.CO;2-K] https://doi.org/10.1002/1529-0131(200011)43:11<2543::AID-ANR23>3.0.CO;2-K [DOI:10.1002/1529-0131(200011)43:113.0.CO;2-K]
30. Ding CH, Cicuttini F, Scott F, Glisson M, Jones G. A cross-sectional study of the determinants of knee cartilage volume. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2002; 10(Suppl A):S57.
31. Ben-Hur H, Thole HH, Mashiah A et al. Estrogen, progesterone and testosterone receptors in human fetal cartilaginous tissue: Immunohistochemical studies. Calcified Tissue International. 1997; 60(6):520–6. [DOI:10.1007/s002239900274] [DOI:10.1007/s002239900274]
32. Franchimont P, Bassleer C. Effects of hormones and local growth factors on articular chondrocyte metabolism. Journal of Rheumatology. 1991; 27(Suppl.):68–70. [PMID]
33. Wluka AE, Davis SR, Bailey M, Stuckey SL, Cicuttini FM. Users of oestrogen replacement therapy have more knee cartilage than non-users. Annals Rheumatology Disease. 2001; 60(4):332–6. [DOI:10.1136/ard.60.4.332] [DOI:10.1136/ard.60.4.332]
34. Cicuttini FM, Wluka A, Bailey M, Sullivan RO, Poon C, Yeung S, et al. Factors affecting knee cartilage volume in healthy men. Rheumatology. 2003; 42(2):258–62. [DOI:10.1093/rheumatology/keg073] [DOI:10.1093/rheumatology/keg073]
35. van der Kraan PM, Buma P, van Kuppevelt T, van den Berg WB. Interaction of chondrocytes, extracellular matrix and growth factors: Relevance for articular cartilage tissue engineering. Osteoarthritis and Cartilage. 2002; 10(8):631–7. [DOI:10.1053/joca.2002.0806] [DOI:10.1053/joca.2002.0806]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb