Volume 14, Issue 3 (Summer 2017)                   ASJ 2017, 14(3): 121-132 | Back to browse issues page

XML Print

1- Phd student of Veterinary Anatomy and Embryology. Department of Basic Science, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
2- Department of Basic Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran.
3- Department of Basic Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
Abstract:   (361 Views)
Introduction: The morphogenic and histogenetic events of an organ and their time sequencing are basic required information to study factors involved in cells differentiation and evaluating the influence of different agents during the critical period of organ formation. The birds are noted as models in experimental embryologic studies, more than other animals. The present study described the morphogenetic events of pheasant (as a native bird of Iran) esophagus, as a unique investigation. 
Methods: We analyzed the pheasant embryos from fifth-24th days of incubation period. After meeting the routine methods of histology laboratory, the slides were stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin, Periodic Acid-Schiff, Alcian Blue, and Van Gieson staining methods. Then, the formation of four layers of primordial esophagus, its epithelial cell differentiation, the separation of lamina propria and submucosa, time of glands formation, their secretion activities and the shape of lumen of gland were studied by a light microscope. 
Results: The data of this study indicated that the most esophageal developmental events of the pheasant occur in the first 2-thirds of the incubation period. The esophageal primordium was noted for the first time on the fifth day of incubation period. The mesenchymal boundary of the esophagus was distinguishable during seventh to eighth days of incubation period. They differentiated the lamina propria and muscular layers during the next 10 days. The epithelial layer of esophagus was gradually differentiated from pseudostratified columnar epithelium (ninth day) into the 2 layered cuboidal (9-10), simple cuboidal (10-12), and the stratified squamous (13th day onward). The esophageal glands were the only structures that began to form in the second half of the incubation period on the 15th day and completed their development on the 21th day. In the present work, the most developmental events were observed in the thoracic esophagus earlier than cervical region.
Conclusion: The comparison of the obtained data with other studied birds shows a general pattern of the esophagus formation among them. However, some differences can be detected in the developmental details and in the time sequencing of the layers. Some of these variations can be related to the differences in the duration of the incubation period among different species.
Full-Text [PDF 3884 kb]   (257 Downloads) |   |   Full-Text (HTML)  (33 Views)  
Type of Study: Original | Subject: Developmental Anatomy
Received: 2016/09/10 | Accepted: 2017/01/2 | Published: 2017/08/1

1. Narita T, Saitoh K, Kameda T, Kuroiwa A, Mizutani M, Koike C, et al. BMPs are necessary for stomach gland formation in the chicken embryo: A study using virally induced BMP-2 and Noggin expression. Development. 2000; 127(5):981-8. [PMID] [PMID]
2. Allenspach AL. The reopening process of the esophagus in the normal chick and the crookedneck dwarf mutant. Development. 1966; 15(1):67-76.
3. Ventura A, do Nascimento AA, dos Santos MAJ, Vieira-Lopes DA, Sales A, Pinheiro NL. Histological description of morphogenesis of the gastroesophageal mucosa of gallus gallus domesticus (Linnaeus, 1758). International Journal of Morphology. 2013; 31(4):1331-9. [DOI:10.4067/S0717-95022013000400030] [DOI:10.4067/S0717-95022013000400030]
4. Wakely J, England MA. Scanning electron microscopical and histochemical study of the structure and function of basement membranes in the early chick embryo. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. 1979; 206(1164):329-52. [DOI:10.1098/rspb.1979.0109] [PMID] [DOI:10.1098/rspb.1979.0109]
5. Bellairs R, Osmond M. Atlas of chick development. Amesterdam: Elsevier; 2005. [PMID] [PMID]
6. Bacha Jr WJ, Bacha LM. Color atlas of veterinary histology. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons; 2012.
7. Banks WJ. Applied veterinary histology. Maryland Heights, Missouri: Mosby; 1993.
8. Ivey W, Edgar S. The histogenesis of the esophagus and crop of the chicken, turkey, guinea fowl and pigeon, with special reference to ciliated epithelium. The Anatomical Record. 1952; 114(2):189-211. [DOI:10.1002/ar.1091140207] [PMID] [DOI:10.1002/ar.1091140207]
9. Parchami A, Dehkordi R. Histological characteristics of the esophageal wall of the common Quail. World Applied Sciences Journal. 2011; 14(3):414-9.
10. Sağsöz H, Lıman N. Structure of the oesophagus and morphometric, histochemical–immunohistochemical profiles of the oesophageal gland during the post‐hatching period of Japanese Quails (coturnix coturnix Japonica). Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia. 2009; 38(5):330-40. [DOI:10.1111/j.1439-0264.2009.00947.x] [PMID] [DOI:10.1111/j.1439-0264.2009.00947.x]
11. Rossi JR, Baraldi-Artoni SM, Oliveira D, Da Cruz C, Sagula A, Pacheco MR, et al. Morphology of oesophagus and crop of the partrigde Rhynchotus rufescens (Tiramidae). Acta Scientiarum: Biological Sciences. 2006; 28(2):165-8.
12. Mobini B. The effect of age, sex and region on histological structures of the esophagus in broiler chickens. Veterinarija ir Zootechnika. 2014; 66(88):46-9.
13. Madhu N, Balasundaram K, Paramasivan S, Jayachitra S, Vijayakumar K, Tamilselvan S. Gross morphology and histology of oesophagus in adult emu birds (dromaius novaehollandiae). Asian Journal of Science and Technology. 2015; 6(1):969-71.
14. Rajabi E, Nabipour A. Histological study on the oesophagus and crop in various species of wild bird. Avian Biology Research. 2009; 2(3):161-4. [DOI:10.3184/175815509X12474789336122] [DOI:10.3184/175815509X12474789336122]
15. Shehan N. Anatomical and histological study of esophagus in Geese (Anser anser demesticus). Basrah Journal Veterinary Research. 2012; 11(1):13-22.
16. Gosomji IJ, Salami SO, Nzalak JO, Kawu MU, Tizhe EV, Gurumyen YG, et al. Histogenesis of the oesophagus of guinea fowl (numida meleagris) at prehatch and posthatch. Scientifica. 2016; Article ID:9827956.
17. Shojaei B, Hashemnia S, Rad RE. Histochemical study of the oesophagus in the chukar partridge (Alectoris chukar) embryo. Folia Morphologica. 2016; 75(4):474-80. [DOI:10.5603/FM.a2016.0011] [PMID] [DOI:10.5603/FM.a2016.0011]
18. McGeady TA, Quinn PJ, FitzPatrick E, Ryan M, Kilroy D, Lonergan P. Veterinary embryology. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons; 2017.
19. Luna LG. Manual of histologic staining methods of the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization; 1968.
20. Whitehead RH. A note on the development of the esophageal epithelium. American Journal of Anatomy. 1905; 4:vi-vii.
21. Johnson FP. The development of the mucous membrane of the oesophagus, stomach and small intestine in the human embryo. Developmental Dynamics. 1910; 10(1):521-75.
22. Raymond C, Anne V, Millane G. Development of esophageal epithelium in the fetal and neonatal mouse. The Anatomical Record. 1991; 230(2):225-34. [DOI:10.1002/ar.1092300210] [PMID] [DOI:10.1002/ar.1092300210]
23. Rodrigues MN, Carvalho RC, Franciolli AL, Rodrigues RF, Rigoglio NN, Jacob JC, et al. Prenatal development of the digestive system in the horse. The Anatomical Record. 2014; 297(7):1218-27. [DOI:10.1002/ar.22929] [PMID] [DOI:10.1002/ar.22929]
24. Bello A, Onyeanusi B, Sonfada M, Adeyanju J, Umar A, Umaru M, et al. Histomorphological studies of the prenatal development of oesophagus of one humped camel (camelus dromedarius). Scientific Journal of Agriculture. 2012; 1(4):100-4.
25. Panchamukhi BG. Prenatal development of the buffalo babalus bubalis stomach with particular reference to organogenesis and histogenesis [PhD dissertation]. Gujarat: Sardar Patel University; 1973.
26. Drummond IA. Cilia functions in development. Current Opinion in Cell Biology. 2012; 24(1):24-30. [DOI:10.1016/j.ceb.2011.12.007] [PMID] [PMCID] [DOI:10.1016/j.ceb.2011.12.007]
27. Engvall E. Structure and function of basement membranes. International Journal of Developmental Biology. 2003; 39(5):781-7. [PMID]